Part of European Network on Longitudinal Studies on Individual Development. Institutional deprivation in early childhood is associated with neuropsychological deficits in adolescence. 4. Beyond school age, persistent DSED symptoms in young adults adopted from early institutional deprivation to well-functioning families in preschool age have been found to be associated with symptoms of ADHD and callous-unemotional traits (CU), though unrelated to depression, anxiety and CD symptoms [47]. The starting point for the study of adverse experiences is that some have enduring consequences that continue after the period of exposure to the adversity. In this Personal View that is shaped by clinical experience and research, we adopt a conceptual approach. different responses in order to discover the causal processes that relate to resilience. The life and legacy of Sir Christopher Booth, The History of Modern Biomedicine Research Group, Rutter, Michael - Transcript of an Interview, Rutter, Michael - 01 Early Training and Influences:The Maudsley Hospital, London (mp3), Rutter, Michael - 02 The Need to question your own Research (mp3), Rutter, Michael - 03 Epidemiological Psychiatry defined: The Study of Romanian Adoptees (mp3), Rutter, Michael - 04 Autism and the MMR Vaccine (mp3), Rutter, Michael - 05 Maternal Deprivation: Relationships and Attachments (mp3), Rutter, Michael - 06 Lost Relationships: Coping, Resilience and Genetic Factors (mp3), Rutter, Michael - 07 Autism: A Brain Disorder with Important Genetic Factors (mp3), Rutter, Michael - 08 Autism: Tests for Diagnosis and Measurement reveal a Wider View of the Disorder (mp3), Rutter, Michael - 09 Autism: Degrees of Severity (mp3), Rutter, Michael - 10 Genes and Behaviour (mp3), Rutter, Michael - 11 How Genes might play a part in Schizophrenia and Autism (mp3), Rutter, Michael - 12 Genes and environments - Anti-social Mothers, Adoptive Parents and Child Behaviour (mp3), Rutter, Michael - 13 Anti-social Behaviour: Why some People develop it (mp3), Rutter, Michael - 14 Anti-social Behaviour: Why it matters (mp3), Rutter, Michael - 15 Anti-social Behaviour: The Role played by Genes that most of us have (mp3), Rutter, Michael - 16 Anti-social Behaviour: The Difference between Corporal Punishment and Maltreatment (mp3), Rutter, Michael - 17 The Camberwell Interview: Assessing Families' Influence on Risks for Children's Behaviour (mp3), Rutter, Michael - 18 Do Schools influence Behavioural and Scholastic Problems? The English and Romanian Adoptees study is used as an example of a "natural experiment," and detailed findings are provided. Of note, generalizability to populations unexposed to early severe deprivation in institutions has been questioned [2. In this chapter we consider why grouping different neurodevelopmental disorders might be useful for clinical and research purposes and also discuss findings that support this clustering. However, even amongst children with an IQ in the normal range, outcome is very variable. We now know autism is one of the most highly heritable disorders with negligible shared environmental contributions. Many prenatal risk factors are known to have adverse consequences on fetal development and there is increasing interest in effects on the mental health of offspring. Traditionally risk factors have been inferred from observational designs. Although autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have a substantial genetic basis, most of the known genetic risk has been traced to rare variants, principally copy number variants (CNVs). Throughout this monograph, there has been frequent reference to levels of risk, inference of causation, testing for mediating variables, and the need to consider possible moderating influences. Attention is paid to the conceptual issues in DSM and ICD development and differences between the two classificati... New research findings provide major challenges regarding our understanding of the concept of autism. To produce a more comprehensive picture, we report Stage 2 of the Autism Genome Project genome-wide association study, adding 1301 ASD... Current classification of eating disorders is failing to classify most clinical presentations; ignores continuities between child, adolescent and adult manifestations; and requires frequent changes of diagnosis to accommodate the natural course of these disorders. Professor Sir Michael Rutter was born in 1933 and trained in general medicine, neurology and paediatrics before specialising in psychiatry. The concept of resilience has as its starting point the recognition that there is huge heterogeneity in people's responses to all manner of environmental adversities. Genes and environments, development and time. It is concluded that substantial gains in knowledge have been achieved during the last 3 years, and there have been some unexpected findings, but major puzzles remain. Importantly, as childhood environments are to a large degree created by parents and thus influenced by parental genetic predispositions (D'Onofrio, Lahey, Turkheimer, & Lichtenstein, 2013;Kendler & Baker, 2007;Plomin & Bergeman, 1991; ... During the 1980s, therefore, the most prominent official statistics on the Black/ White gap were based on one-off special investigations that did not even operationalise a separate category for White students (Rampton, 1981;Swann, 1985). Institutional deprivation, specific cognitive functions, and scholastic achievement: English and Romanian Adoptee (ERA) study findings, I. Example of Meta‐Analysis Mx script. in how humans respond to environmental hazards, whether those are physical or psychological. The articles in this five-volume collection cover the myriad genetic and non-genetic developmental psychopathological conditions which are now known and being researched from a variety of perspectives, from dyslexia to autism and beyond. The use of... Background: Concepts of causation are discussed, as are alternative explanations of an association other than causation. Maximum likelihood estimates of the MZ and DZ twin correlations. Rutter’s research is consistent with Bowlby and Harlow (58). The goal of the Centre is to bridge the gap between ‘nature’ (genetics) and ‘nurture’ (environment) as they interact in the development of complex human behaviour, such as depression and Attention Deficity Hyperactivity Disorder in children. His studies of autism, depression, antisocial behaviour, reading difficulties, deprived children, overactive children, school effectiveness and children whose psychiatric problems have a clear organic component has resulted in many publications. Michael Rutter, Box Number P080, Social, ... Methods: We note the need for representative general samples, and for adequate measurement and significance testing if valid conclusions are to be drawn. This study investigated whether the instruments differentiated between parents of children with autism, and parents of children with Down syndrome (DS). Results Much the strongest evidence concerns the importance of susceptibility genes, but such genes The ERA study constitutes a “natural experiment” that allows the examination of the effects of radical environmental change from a profoundly depriving institut... To identify the broader autism phenotype (BAP), the Family History Interview subject and informant versions and an observational tool (Impression of Interviewee), were developed. Suggestions have been made that many claims concern false-positive findings in the field of child psychology and psychiatry. Although tests of associations between family history and clinical features are numerous for depression, such tests are relatively... ... Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in how social conditions influence health and disease by becoming biologically embedded Brody et al., 2014;Chen & Miller, 2013;Link & Phelan, 1995;Phelan, Link, & Tehranifar 2010; ... To better interpret the genotype-phenotype correlation of this region, we made a summary on clinic data in postnatal and prenatal cases with pure 19q13.42q13.43 duplication, as shown in Table 1 [14,[18][19]. Risk, causation, mediation, and moderation, 5HTT genotype moderates the influence of early institutional deprivation on emotional problems in adolescence: Evidence from the English and Romanian Adoptee (ERA) study, Assessing the Concept of the ‘Insecure‐Other’ Category in the Cassidy–Marvin Scheme: Changes Between 4 and 6 Years in the English and Romanian Adoptee Study. Although the mechanisms mediating these effects are not known, recent work in rodent models suggests that epigenetic processes may be involved. Four hundred and fifty-eight individuals with ASD were recruited from 226 IMGSAC families. Since institutional care facilities have historically been excellent environments within which to study the detrimental effects of early deprivation, genetics research has also transitioned into this area, ... Second, if perspective taking is impaired in autism, then, as Carruthers (2006) has pointed out, on the assumption that introspective faculty is intact in autism, autistic subjects must experience no severe difficulty in reading their own minds. When is a case a case? Methods and measures used for follow-up at 15 years of the English and Romanian adoptee (era) study, X. We report on cognitive, social and mental health outcomes in 87 adult siblings (mean age 39 years). Moffitt (1993) proposed that subclassification of CD should be according to age of onset. The English & Romanian Adoptees (ERA) study follows children who spent their first years of life in extremely depriving Romanian institutions before they were adopted by families in the UK. 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